Labor Camp in Rożnów (the precise location was not identified)
The creation of the first labor camp was connected to the construction of the Rożnów dam. The camp was probably located not far away from it. It existed from 1939 until the end of 1942. Its prisoners were recruited mainly from the Nowy Sącz ghetto, although there were also people from other towns and cities. More than 1000 people went through the camp. Its sanitary, provision and housing conditions were disastrous. From time to time, a selection was made among prisoners, and the sick and weaker ones were shot in the nearby forest. After the Nowy Sącz ghetto was liquidated and the lake was flooded, the gradual liquidation of the camp began. It ceased to exist in December 1942. In 1944–1945 the camp was once again operational, this time the Polish people were held here. They were forced to work on the fortifications.
Labor Camp in Lipie (a monument next to the school complex in Gródek nad Dunajcem)
The camp was located next to the road from Rożnów to Nowy Sącz. It functioned from 1940 to 1943. Most of the prisoners were brought from the nearby ghettos, including the one in Nowy Sącz. The life conditions in the camp were disastrous. The main occupation of the Jewish workers here was the construction of road infrastructure, to improve the connection between Nowy Sącz and the dam. Like in Rożnów camp, more than 1000 went through the camp in Lipie.
Labor Camp in Muszyna, in the vicinity of Piłsudskiego Street
The camp operated based on the pre-war Jewish sawmill of the Żupnik-Segal-Wolf joint venture. It was located between the railway tracks and the Piłsudskiego Street, near the intersection. Jewish people worked in the sawmill until 1941 In that year or in the beginning of the next, the enterprise began changing into a camp. It operated until the end of 1942. The processing of wood was still done by the Jewish workers, mainly those who were considered “productive” during the liquidation of the ghettos in Nowy Sącz, Gorlice and other cities. The terrible conditions in the camp have led many people to try to escape. The local Jewish people knew well that Slovakia and then Hungary were on the other side of the mountains – promising a greater chance of survival. After the camp ceased functioning, the prisoners were transferred to other German facilites.
Labor Camp in Nawojowa (sawmill)
The camp for the Jewish people operated between August 1942 and February 1943. It was created just after the ghetto was liquidated, forcing the Jewish people, who were positively assessed, as “professionals”, during the selection. Among them there were those who had already worked in other camps nearby, for example in Rożnów. They would work processing wood, using the sawmill equipment, and carrying out various road construction works.
Labor Camp in Rytro (former sawmill, location unknown)
The camp was established in February 1942 and operated until February 1944. It was involved in wood processing and based on the sawmill equipment. Around 100 Jewish workers worked there, so it was not a large facility. Compared to other camps, the living conditions in it were not quite as bad, but still far from decent. Most of the prisoners came from other camps. The camp was expanded after the Nowy Sącz ghetto was liquidated and some of the people declared to be “useful” were sent here. After the camp was closed, the prisoners were transported to Mielec. Many of them survived the war.
Labor Camp in Nowy Sącz (in the vicinity of the railway workshops)
During the occupation of Poland, between 1942 and 1944, there was a labor camp here. There were mostly Polish people working in it, around 150, although some studies indicate that there were more. Perhaps groups from prison were brought here. Witnesses’ testimonies do not indicate the existence of barracks. The prisoners worked mainly on railway infrastructure. In total, more than 2 thousand people went through the camp in Nowy Sącz – as J. Kucia claims. During the liquidation of the camp, the Germans have released the prisoners. It was in the autumn of 1944. J. Marszałek lists several camps in the city. In 1940–1941, a camp for 300 prisoners involved in the regulation of watercourses was supposed to operate. In the same period, another camp was set up for the construction of roads. At the end of the war, in 1944–1945, a camp, prisoners of which were involved in building the front fortifications. The last one held only Polish people. Unfortunately, we do not know the locations of these camps.
Labor Camp in Tęgoborze (location not identified)
A camp for the Jewish workers, mainly young boys (up to 25 years old). The camp operated probably in the early 1940s. Many things lead us to believe that eventually the prisoners were transferred to Lipie and Rożnów, where there was more work to be done to create the Rożnów Lake.
Labor camp in Zbyszyce (location not identified)
The camp was linked to the constructions around the Rożnów Lake. The Jewish people from the ghetto and from other camps were sent here. In the opinion of the survivors, there conditions in the camp were good, although the prisoners would also experience hunger. The Jewish workers would be mainly involved in road construction and also in forestry. After the camp was liquidated, the prisoners were taken to other labor facilities or to the Tarnów ghetto.
Labor Camp in Chełmiec (location not identified)
It was a camp for Polish and Jewish prisoners. It was operating from July 1944 to January 1945. Its prisoners were involved in agriculture economy and construction of fortifications. J. Marszałek estimates the number of prisoners to be 250. The camp’s location was not identified
Labor Camp in Florynka (location not identified)
It functioned from 1944 to 1945 Its operations were connected with the front preparations before the expected Red Army offensive – the Germans forced the prisoners to build the fortifications. J. Marszałek believes that all those working in the camp were Polish.
Labor Camp in Łabowa (location not identified)
It functioned from 1940 to 1941. There were only Ukrainians working here, approximately 60 people. The prisoners were involved in road construction.
Labor Camp in Marcinkowice
The Jewish people from Nowy Sącz, brought in from the ghetto, were working here. The prisoners were involved in the reinforcement and construction of railway infrastructure. With the liquidation of the ghetto, the work here stopped.
Labor Camps in Stary Sącz (locations not identified)
The prisoners of the camps built the fortifications between 1944 and 1945. According to J. Marszałek, the number of Poles working here could have reached even 3 000 people.
Labor Camp in Wojnarowa (location not identified)
The operation of the camp was connected with the construction of reinforcements by the local population. Between summer 1944 and January 1945, about 500 Polish people worked here.
Labor Camp in Biała Niżna (location not identified)
The camp operated for a very short time in 1944. There were around 60 Polish prisoners working here on fortifications.
Labor Camp in Grybów (location not identified)
The functioning of the camp was connected to the end of the war – its prisoners built fortifications before the expected Red Army offensive. It was operating between 1944 and 1945 and there were nearly 200 prisoners working in it.